The term ‘resistance’ has existed in different languages since time immemorial. A history of the term is neither consequential nor required. However, in the humanities and social sciences, the term has had a long history of opening various areas and avenues of research. Aimed against different established hegemonic structures, different voices of resistance across time and space have resulted into various movements and revolutions across the globe. When Marx observed history as struggle between the bourgeois and the proletariat, when Foucault proposed the thesis of ‘disciplinary society’ and explained the underlying link(s) between knowledge and power, when Said questioned the cultural representations and conceptual narratives of the West about the East , a series of successive voices developed special realms through which umerous voices of dissent were articulated.
The spirit of resistance is however not limited to select individuals. There have been movements and revolutions in past which not only paved way to alternative thinking/system but also resulted into greater social/cultural/political changes and reforms. The Black Power revolution in Trinidad in 1970s, the Carnation Revolution in Portugal in 1980s, the Black Panther movement in 1970s in United States, the Iranian Revolution in 1980s which led to the formation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, an armed movement for an independent Sikh homeland by Khalistan Commando Force in 1986, Dalit Panther movement in India in 1980s which led to the emergence of Dalit Studies as a new area of research, the Anti-Corruption movement in India in 2011, Tunisian Revolution of 2010 and the contemporary Syrian Crisis and displacement are to name a few. While different narratives of these movements/revolutions might unfold the stories of brutality, violence, discrimination and vulnerability or violation of human rights, there is no denying the fact that these movement/revolutions have had far reaching influences on art, culture and literature in different societies.
Apart from the two categories mentioned above, there are umpteen instances to suggest that resistance is integrally ingrained in our everyday life, so much so that it is difficult to draw a line among the constantly changing categories such as voices of resistance, resilience, dissent and alternative thought system. Virtual space, with its new dimensions, has emerged as a new terrain of everyday contestations, conceptualization and consolidations. Social media, in particular, has accelerated those patterns of friction, which always existed at different levels in the contemporary times. And as a result, in the tussle of dissemination and mobilization of the elusive ‘truth’, the binary boundaries such as real-copy, false-truth, political-apolitical, original-translation, and authentic-fabricated seem to have blurred. Hence, it is pertinent to discuss of rights of people on social, political, and cultural issues ranging from the politics of representation and exclusion, civil liberties and state violence, sexual orientation, debates around the concepts such as region, nation, caste, communities etc., the art and censorship and the like are all seminal and vital.
We invite papers to be published in this issue from a range of disciplines/areas of study, including but not restricted to, Literary studies, History, Sociology, Cultural Studies, Social Exclusion, Political Science, Media Studies, English Language Education, Development Studies, Performing Arts and Translation Studies.
From Editors’ Pen